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Medical Notes: Combining Black Seed Oil and Full-Spectrum Cannabis Oil (RSO)

Introduction You may find these notes helpful in your journey or sharing with a loved one who may be interested. This is not medical advice. You must consult a medication professional prior to considering the rest of the information. Your loved one may already be on a medication regimen that might include something like 15mg […]

Cannabis for Pain Management

An Illustration of Cannabis and an x-ray image of the human upper torso.

1. Introduction to Cannabis for Pain Management 1.1. What is Cannabis? Cannabis is a plant that has been used for medicinal purposes for thousands of years. It contains over 100 cannabinoids, including THC and CBD, which have been shown to have pain-relieving effects. THC is the psychoactive component of cannabis and is responsible for the […]

The Benefits of Medical Cannabis for Pain Management

Chronic pain is a persistent problem for many individuals, with an estimated 100 million Americans experiencing some form of chronic pain. Traditional pain management methods, such as prescription painkillers, can be effective in relieving pain but also come with a host of potential side effects and a risk of addiction and overdose. In recent years, […]

Top 7 Reasons Why Legal Cannabis Can Bolster National Health – Sponsored

By Anna Wilcox For the last 80 years, cannabis has been identified as Public Enemy Number 1, said to promote lude behavior, encourage violence, and drive people into states of rage. Fortunately, these social and political arguments have yet to be backed by any real science. The cannabis plant has been a part of human history […]

First FDA-approved study of cannabis for PTSD in veterans underway

Cannabis research

In a symposium on the issues and controversies surrounding marijuana, internist and telemedicine physician Sue Sisley, MD, discussed the design and aim of her FDA-approved phase 2 study of cannabis for PTSD in U.S. military veterans. Sisley, who was terminated from the University of Arizona after becoming the principle investigator on the cannabis study, said she was […]

Washington State Traceability and Updated Reporting

from the Washington LCB… Current Stats from Leaf Data Systems The below statistics cover activity in Leaf Data Systems for the time period between February 1, 2018 and March 11, 2018. Workarounds within Leaf Last week we sent an email that included a link to a table with known workaround solutions for workflow issues. This information will […]

QuEChERS 101

Sample preparation experts and analytical chemists are quick to suggest QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) to cannabis laboratories that are analyzing both flower and edible material for pesticides, mycotoxins and cannabinoid content. Besides having a quirky name, just what makes QuEChERS a good extraction technique for the complicated matrices of cannabis products? […]

BAS Research Aims to Perfect the Business of Medicinal Cannabis

Thanks to the city of Berkeley, California’s first licensed medicinal marijuana research facility, BAS Research, opened last summer. With now over four million dollars invested, they have gone to great lengths to welcome cannabis clients seeking testing, formulaic research, and high-grade oil for their products. The one-stop shop also packages and labels, providing a business, […]

National Academy of Sciences Releases Report on Marijuana Confirming Medical Benefits; Dispelling Myths

WASHINGTON, DC — The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine released a report on the health impacts of marijuana Thursday, confirming the existence of medical benefits and dispelling some long-held myths about the substance. The review of more than 10,000 scientific abstracts found, “There is conclusive or substantial evidence that cannabis or cannabinoids are effective” […]

Can Cannabis Help with Inflammation for Athletes?

Athletes today are bigger, stronger, and faster than they were just a decade or so ago. Men and women are becoming more competitive thanks in part to technological advancements designed to improve workouts and recovery time, as well as a better understanding of athlete physiology and the advent of new training exercises designed to maximize […]

What is the Endocannabinoid System and What is Its Role?

What is the Endocannabinoid System and What is Its Role?

It’s becoming clear the endocannabinoid system plays a crucial role in the human body’s inner workings. As such, a better understanding of this system—and of cannabinoids in general—will likely lead to better health outcomes. Leafly got in touch with Hanuš to asked him about his team’s discovery, the scientific progress that has been made since, […]

Meet Lumir Hanus, Who Discovered the First Endocannabinoid

What is the Endocannabinoid System and What is Its Role?

2017 marks the 25th anniversary of one of the most important discoveries in cannabinoid science. On March 24, 1992, Lumír Hanuš, a Czech analytical chemist working in Israel with American pharmacologist William Devane, isolated the first known endocannabinoid in the human brain. They named it anandamide, after the Sanskrit word for joy or bliss. Both […]

The Runner’s High and the Endocannabinoid System

If you are (or you’ve ever been) an avid runner or obsessive gym rat, you’re likely familiar with that coveted post-workout sense of euphoria popularized as the “runner’s high.” But what exactly is it? The runner’s high has been characterized in scientific literature as “pure happiness, elation, a feeling of unity with one’s self or […]

5 Experts Weigh in on Cannabis Concentrates and How to Use Them

This article is sponsored by Firefly, a San Francisco-based technology company that specializes in the research, design, and manufacturing of vaporizer hardware. Cannabis concentrates aren’t going anywhere. This segment of the market – which includes waxes, shatters, hash oils, rosins, tinctures, and more – is expanding at lightning speed, and may give us the most compelling vision […]

NSW: Medicinal-Cannabis Trials At Calvary Mater Newcastle And John Hunter Hospitals

The NSW government will begin a medicinal-cannabis trial at the Calvary Mater Newcastle hospital for patients with advanced cancer “in the coming months”. “Researchers are finalising the necessary arrangements to enrol the first patients soon,” a spokeswoman for the government’s Centre for Medicinal Cannabis Research and Innovation said. “The researchers are importing a leaf product, […]

US Government Has Been Funding This Israeli Cannabis Researcher For 50 Years

As many Americans approach November 4 with a sense of dread, facing the fact that either Donald Trump or Hillary Clinton will be the next president, much more hopeful things will be going on that day. Residents in at least nine states will be voting on ballot initiatives to legalize recreational or medical cannabis use. […]

Sign-ups Open for Fall 2016 Emerald Scientific Cannabis Proficiency Testing

Medical Cannabis

PRESS RELEASESAN LUIS OBISPO, CA, September 14, 2016 – Cannabis testing labs across the United States are signing up for the Fall 2016 Emerald Test Inter-labComparison and Proficiency Test (ILC/PT), in an effort to advance quality assurance in the industry. Labs interested in joining the contest have until September 21 to registerthrough the Emerald Test […]

Cannabis reduces short-term motivation to work for money

Smoking the equivalent of a single ‘spliff’ of cannabis makes people less willing to work for money while ‘high’, finds a new UCL study. The research, published in Psychopharmacology, is the first to reliably demonstrate the short-term effects of cannabis on motivation in humans. The researchers also tested motivation in people who were addicted to […]

Prenatal Cannabis Exposure – The “First Hit” to the Endocannabinoid System.

As more states and countries legalize medical and/or adult recreational marijuana use, the incidences of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure (PCE) will likely increase. While young people increasingly view marijuana as innocuous, marijuana preparations have been growing in potency in recent years, potentially creating global clinical, public health, and workforce concerns. Unlike fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, there […]

Delineating the Efficacy of a Cannabis-Based Medicine at Advanced Stages of Dementia in a Murine Model.

Previous reports have demonstrated that the combination of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) botanical extracts, which are the components of an already approved cannabis-based medicine, reduce the Alzheimer-like phenotype of AβPP/PS1 transgenic mice when chronically administered during the early symptomatic stage. Here, we provide evidence that such natural cannabinoids are still effective in reducing memory […]

The endocannabinoid anandamide impairs in vitro decidualization of human cells.

Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are endogenous mediators that along with the cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), a membrane transporter and metabolic enzymes form the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Several eCBs have been discovered with emphasis on anandamide (AEA). They are involved in several biological processes such as energy balance, immune response and reproduction. Decidualization occurs during the secretory […]

The gastrointestinal tract – a central organ of cannabinoid signaling in health and disease.

BACKGROUND: In ancient medicine, extracts of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa were used against diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Today, our knowledge of the ingredients of the Cannabis plant has remarkably advanced enabling us to use a variety of herbal and synthetic cannabinoid (CB) compounds to study the endocannabinoid system (ECS), a physiologic entity […]

The use of rapid review methods in health technology assessments: 3 case studies.

BACKGROUND: Rapid reviews are of increasing importance within health technology assessment due to time and resource constraints. There are many rapid review methods available although there is little guidance as to the most suitable methods. We present three case studies employing differing methods to suit the evidence base for each review and outline some issues […]

What’s the Best Strain for Crohn’s Disease?

Medical Marijuana Research

I was diagnosed with Crohn’s Disease 12 years ago and got my first medical cannabis card in California around the same time. I have written about it online and I happily talk about it whenever prompted. I am frequently asked the same question, “what’s the best strain for Crohn’s Disease?” First and foremost, I am […]

Marijuana, phytocannabinoids, the endocannabinoid system, and male fertility.

Marijuana has the highest consumption rate among all of the illicit drugs used in the USA, and its popularity as both a recreational and medicinal drug is increasing especially among men of reproductive age. Male factor infertility is on the increase, and the exposure to the cannabinoid compounds released by marijuana could be a contributing […]

Researchers find new role for cannabinoids in vision

A multidisciplinary team including researchers from the Montreal Neurological Institute has improved our understanding of how cannabinoids, the active agent in marijuana, affect vision in vertebrates. Scientists used a variety of methods to test how tadpoles react to visual stimuli when they’ve been exposed to increased levels of exogenous or endogenous cannabinoids. Exogenous cannabinoids are […]

Cannabis and a lower BMI in psychosis: What is the role of AKT1?

Cannabis use has been associated with favorable outcomes on metabolic risk factors. The cause of this relation is still unknown. In this study we investigated whether this effect is mediated by the AKT1 gene, as activation of the related enzyme by cannabis may cause metabolic changes. Six Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of the AKT1 gene […]

Marijuana Smoking in Patients With Leukemia.

Worldwide, marijuana (cannabis) is a widely used drug. The incidence of marijuana smoking is increasing and is second only to tobacco as the most widely smoked substance in the general population. It is also the second most commonly used recreational drug after alcohol. Some adverse effects of marijuana smoking have been documented; however, the number […]

Definitions of Risky and Problematic Cannabis Use: A Systematic Review.

Although cannabis is widely used, it remains unclear which consumption patterns are more likely to produce future consequences (risky/hazardous use) or current damage (problematic/harmful use). This unresolved issue contributes to cannabis public health implications. In order to facilitate further consensus, this review analyzes previously used definitions in the literature. METHODS: This systematic review was performed […]

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol decreases willingness to exert cognitive effort in male rats.

BACKGROUND: Acceptance of cannabis use is growing. However, prolonged use is associated with diminished psychosocial outcomes, potentially mediated by drug-induced cognitive impairments. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, yet other phytocannabinoids in the plant, such as cannabidiol (CBD), have unique properties. Given that CBD can modulate the undesirable effects of THC, therapeutic […]

THC in marijuana makes rats lazy, less willing to try cognitively demanding tasks

New research from the University of British Columbia suggests there may be some truth to the belief that marijuana use causes laziness — at least in rats. The study, published today in the Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, found that tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, makes rats less willing to try a […]

Brain imaging studies on the cognitive, pharmacological and neurobiological effects of cannabis in humans: Evidence from studies of adult users.

Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug worldwide. Regular cannabis use has been associated with a range of acute and chronic mental health problems, such as anxiety, depression, psychotic symptoms and neurocognitive impairments and their neural mechanisms need to be examined. This review summarizes and critically evaluates brain-imaging studies of cannabis in recreational and […]

Pharmacological Treatment of Cannabis-Related Disorders: A Narrative Review.

BACKGROUND: Cannabis is the most widely used illicit psychoactive substance world-wide, yet no medication is approved for the treatment of intoxication, withdrawal, or cannabis use disorder (CUD). OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively review the current state of knowledge. METHOD: Search of the PubMed electronic data base and review of reference lists of relevant articles to identify controlled […]

The problematic use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in adolescents by the cross sectional JOITIC study.

BACKGROUND: The emerging field of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) has brought about new interaction styles. Its excessive use may lead to addictive behaviours. The objective is to determine the prevalence of the problematic use of ICT such as Internet, mobile phones and video games, among adolescents enrolled in mandatory Secondary Education (ESO in Spanish) […]

Child Restraint Use and Driver Screening in Fatal Crashes Involving Drugs and Alcohol.

BACKGROUND: There are reports that the incidence of alcohol-involved crashes has remained stable among fatally injured drivers while drug involvement has increased in recent years. METHODS: Data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) from 2010 to 2013 were used to examine drug and alcohol status of drivers (N = 10 864) of 4-wheeled passenger vehicles […]

Dominant psychoactive drugs in the Central European region: A wastewater study.

The aim of this study was to analyze 26 various illicit drugs, psychopharmaceuticals and metabolites thereof in sewer from 17 selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the Slovak and Czech Republics. Urinary bio-markers used were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled with the tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We then compared our results with data obtained in […]

Cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonism ameliorates harmaline-induced essential tremor in rat.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Essential tremor (ET) is a neurological disorder with unknown etiology. Its symptoms include cerebellar motor disturbances, cognitive and personality changes, hearing and olfactory deficits. Excitotoxic cerebellar climbing fibre hyperactivity may underlie essential tremor and has been emulated in rodents by systemic harmaline administration. Cannabinoid receptor agonists can cause motor disturbances although there […]

Contribution of health motive to cannabis use among high-school students.

The Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM), which is derived from a scale measuring alcohol use motives, has been the main instrument used to explore the role of motives in cannabis use and related problems. Two studies attempted to developed specific cannabis use motives but none of them showed a unique association to cannabis use and problems […]

DEA Ends Mississippi’s Medical Marijuana Research Monopoly

Countless activists, researchers and enthusiasts let out a collective whimper when the Drug Enforcement Administration upheld a 46-year-old policy of classifying marijuana as a Schedule I narcotic with no medicinal properties. But then, federal officials did something utterly unexpected and loosened restrictions on the cultivation of marijuana for research purposes. While that might sound counterintuitive, […]

Psychosis associated with acute recreational drug toxicity: a European case series.

BACKGROUND: Psychosis can be associated with acute recreational drug and novel psychoactive substance (NPS) toxicity. However, there is limited data available on how common this is and which drugs are most frequently implicated. We describe a European case series of psychosis associated with acute recreational drug toxicity, and estimate the frequency of psychosis for different […]

Long term stability of cannabinoids in oral fluid after controlled cannabis administration.

Cannabinoid stability in oral fluid (OF) is important for assuring accurate results since OF has become a valid alternative matrix of choice for drug testing. We previously published OF cannabinoid stability studies using Quantisal™, Oral-Eze®, and StatSure™ devices stored at room temperature for 1 week, 4 °C for up to 4 weeks and in -20 °C up to 24 weeks. […]

U-shaped curve of psychosis according to cannabis use: New evidence from a snowball sample.

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) assessed using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experience (CAPE) questionnaire and the pattern of cannabis use in a non-clinical sample collected by snowball sampling. METHODS: Our sample was composed of 204 subjects, distributed into three groups by their cannabis use […]

Discussing prevalence, impacts, and treatment of substance use disorders in athletes.

The consumption of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs has become a concern in high-performance athletes. Professional athletes are more exposed to drugs than the general population. Although some drugs are unquestionably detrimental to performance, several studies have nevertheless shown evidence of increased consumption of these substances within this sub-population. This review aimed to elucidate alcohol, […]

Premature responses in the five-choice serial reaction time task reflect rodents' temporal strategies: evidence from no-light and pharmacological challenges.

RATIONALE: The five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) is regularly used to study attention and impulsivity. In the 5-CSRTT, rodents initiate a trial, then after an inter-trial interval (ITI), a light appears in one of five holes. Responding in the lit vs. unlit hole reflects attention (accuracy), while responding prematurely before a light appears is […]

Exploring Marijuana Advertising on Weedmaps, a Popular Online Directory.

With an increase in the legalization of recreational marijuana across the USA, advertising for marijuana products is more widespread, especially on the Internet where such practices pose a regulatory challenge. In this study, we examined the content of marijuana advertising on Weedmaps, a popular website that markets marijuana retailers online. A total of 146 recreational […]

Occurrence of illicit drugs and selected pharmaceuticals in Slovak municipal wastewater.

We analyzed illicit drugs and their metabolites and pharmaceuticals in wastewater from 15 selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Slovakia. Our results indicate that methamphetamine is one of the most commonly used illegal drugs in all the regions of Slovakia monitored in this study. Compared with the international results, the Slovak cities of Dunajská Streda […]

Rapid identification of drug-type strains in Cannabis sativa using loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

In Cannabis sativa L., tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary psychoactive compound and exists as the carboxylated form, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA). C. sativa is divided into two strains based on THCA content-THCA-rich (drug-type) strains and THCA-poor (fiber-type) strains. Both strains are prohibited by law in many countries including Japan, whereas the drug-type strains are regulated in […]

Age at First Use and Later Substance Use Disorder: Shared Genetic and Environmental Pathways for Nicotine, Alcohol, and Cannabis.

Behavioral genetic studies have provided insights into why early substance use initiation is associated with increased risk for disorder. Few genetically informative studies, however, have operationalized initiation as the of first use and simultaneously modeled the timing of initiation and problematic use of multiple substances. Such research can help capture the risk associated with early […]

Smoking marijuana provides more pain relief for men than women

Researchers from Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) found that men had greater pain relief than women after smoking marijuana. Results of the study were recently published online in Drug and Alcohol Dependence. “These findings come at a time when more people, including women, are turning to the use of medical cannabis for pain relief,” said […]

Cannabidiolic acid-mediated selective down-regulation of c-fos in highly aggressive breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells: possible involvement of its down-regulation in the abrogation of aggressiveness.

The physiological activities of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), a component of fiber-type cannabis plants, have been demonstrated and include its function as a protector against external invasion by inducing cannabinoid-mediated necrosis (Shoyama et al., Plant Signal Behav 3:1111-1112, 2008). The biological activities of CBDA have been attracting increasing attention. We previously identified CBDA as an inhibitor […]

Clinical trials of medicinal cannabis for appetite-related symptoms from advanced cancer: A survey of preferences, attitudes and beliefs among patients willing to consider participation.

BACKGROUND: Australian clinical trials are planned to evaluate medicinal cannabis in a range of clinical contexts. AIMS: To explore the preferences, attitudes and beliefs of patients eligible and willing to consider participation in a clinical trial of medicinal cannabis for poor appetite and appetite-related symptoms from advanced cancer. METHODS: A cross-sectional anonymous survey was administered […]

Association between cannabis use and treatment outcomes in patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment: a systematic review protocol.

BACKGROUND: With the non-medical use of prescription opioids increasingly becoming a method of abuse in Canada, the number of patients requiring methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for opioid use disorder has increased dramatically. The rate of cannabis use in this population is disproportionately high (~50 %). Because its use is generally perceived as harmless, cannabis use is […]

Cannabis Epidemiology: A Selective Review.

BACKGROUND: Globally, the most widely used set of compounds among the internationally regulated drugs is cannabis. OBJECTIVE: To review evidence from epidemiological research on cannabis, organized in relation to this field's five main rubrics: quantity, location, causes, mechanisms, and prevention/control. METHOD: The review covers a selection of evidence from standardized population surveys, official statistics, and […]

Effect of the novel synthetic cannabinoids AKB48 and 5F-AKB48 on “tetrad”, sensorimotor, neurological and neurochemical responses in mice. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies.

RATIONALE: AKB48 and its fluorinate derivate 5F-AKB48 are two novel synthetic cannabinoids belonging to a structural class with an indazole core structure. They are marketed as incense, herbal preparations or chemical supply for their psychoactive Cannabis-like effects. OBJECTIVES: The present study was aimed at investigating the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activity of AKB48 […]

Critical comparison of mass analyzers for forensic hair analysis by ambient ionization mass spectrometry.

RATIONALE: Recently, several direct and/or ambient mass spectrometry (MS) approaches have been suggested for drugs of abuse imaging in hair. The use of mass spectrometers with insufficient selectivity could result in false-positive measurements due to isobaric interferences. Different mass analyzers have been evaluated regarding their selectivity and sensitivity for the detection of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) from […]

Association Between Lifetime Marijuana Use and Cognitive Function in Middle Age: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.

 IMPORTANCE: Marijuana use is increasingly common in the United States. It is unclear whether it has long-term effects on memory and other domains of cognitive function. OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cumulative lifetime exposure to marijuana use and cognitive performance in middle age. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We used data from the Coronary Artery […]

Development of a novel immunoassay for herbal cannabis using a new fluorescent antibody probe, “Ultra Quenchbody”.

We developed a novel immunoassay for herbal cannabis based on a new immunoassay principle that uses Ultra Quenchbody (“UQ-body”), a recombinant antibody Fab fragment fluorolabeled at the N-terminal regions. When the antigen binds to anti-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) UQ-body, the fluorescence intensity (FI) decreases. The analytical conditions of the immunoassay were optimized based on the FI reduction […]

Adolescent cannabis use: What is the evidence for functional brain alteration?

Background Cannabis use typically commences during adolescence, a period during which the brain undergoes profound remodeling in areas that are high in cannabinoid receptors and that mediate cognitive control and emotion regulation. It is therefore important to determine the impact of adolescent cannabis use on brain function. Objective We investigate the impact of adolescent cannabis […]

Trajectories of cannabis use disorder: risk factors, clinical characteristics, and outcomes.

AIMS: To estimate cannabis use disorder (CUD) trajectory classes from ages 14 through 30 and compare classes on clinical characteristics, risk factors, and psychosocial outcomes. DESIGN: Four waves (T1 -T4 ) of data from an epidemiological study of psychopathology among a regionally representative sample. Trajectory classes described risk for CUD as a function of age. […]

Cue-elicited increases in incentive salience for marijuana: Craving, demand, and attentional bias.

BACKGROUND: Incentive salience is a multidimensional construct that includes craving, drug value relative to other reinforcers, and implicit motivation such as attentional bias to drug cues. Laboratory cue reactivity (CR) paradigms have been used to evaluate marijuana incentive salience with measures of craving, but not with behavioral economic measures of marijuana demand or implicit attentional […]

The genetic basis of the comorbidity between cannabis use and major depression.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: While the prevalence of major depression is elevated amongst cannabis users, the role of genetics in this pattern of comorbidity is not clear. This study aimed to estimate the heritability of cannabis use and major depression, quantify the genetic overlap between these two traits, and localize regions of the genome that segregate […]

Sex-dependent effects of cannabis-induced analgesia.

BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies demonstrate that cannabinoid-mediated antinociceptive effects vary according to sex; it is unknown if these findings extend to humans. METHODS: This retrospective analysis compared the analgesic, subjective and physiological effects of active cannabis (3.56-5.60% THC) and inactive cannabis (0.00% THC) in male (N=21) and female (N=21) cannabis smokers under double-blind, placebo-controlled conditions. Pain […]

Prenatal Substance Exposure and Reporting of Child Maltreatment by Race and Ethnicity.

BACKGROUND: Substance exposure is thought to contribute to reports of suspected maltreatment made to child protective services (CPS) at or shortly after birth. There are limited data, however, on whether clinicians are more likely to report black and Hispanic substance-exposed infants compared with white infants. METHODS: We examined racial differences in diagnosed substance exposure and […]

Individuals developing schizophrenia are hidden among adolescent substance misusers.

BACKGROUND: Strategies are needed to identify youth developing schizophrenia. The present study aimed to determine whether adolescents treated for substance misuse were at elevated risk to develop schizophrenia, whether this risk has changed since the late 1960s, and whether substance misuse in adolescence predicted poorer outcomes through adulthood. METHOD: In a Swedish city, since the […]

Subgrouping of risky behaviors among Iranian college students: a latent class analysis.

BACKGROUND: Risky behaviors may interrupt development or cause considerable morbidity or mortality. This study’s purpose was to determine subgroups of students based on risky behaviors and assess the prevalence of risky behaviors in each of the subgroups. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: This anonymous cross-sectional study was carried out in October 2015 and November 2015, with 1,777 […]

A Belated Green Revolution for Cannabis: Virtual Genetic Resources to Fast-Track Cultivar Development.

Cannabis is a predominantly diecious phenotypically diverse domesticated genus with few if any extant natural populations. International narcotics conventions and associated legislation have constrained the establishment, characterization, and use of Cannabis genetic resource collections. This has resulted in the underutilization of genepool variability in cultivar development and has limited the inclusion of secondary genepools associated […]

Sex Effects of Marijuana on Brain Structure and Function.

BACKGROUND: Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the primary ingredient in marijuana, exerts its effects across several neurological and biological systems that interact with the endocrine system. Thus, differential effects of Δ9-THC are likely to exist based on sex and hormone levels. METHODS: We reviewed the existing literature to determine sex-based effects of Δ9-THC on neural structure and functioning. […]

Opposite Cannabis-Cognition Associations in Psychotic Patients Depending on Family History.

The objective of this study is to investigate cognitive performance in a first-episode psychosis sample, when stratifying the interaction by cannabis use and familial or non-familial psychosis. Hierarchical-regression models were used to analyse this association in a sample of 268 first-episode psychosis patients and 237 controls. We found that cannabis use was associated with worse […]

Effective treatment of spasticity using dronabinol in pediatric palliative care.

BACKGROUND: Cannabis extracts have a wide therapeutic potential but in many countries they have not been approved for treatment in children so far. OBJECTIVE: We conducted an open, uncontrolled, retrospective study on the administration of dronabinol to determine the value, efficacy, and safety of cannabis-based medicines in the treatment of refractory spasticity in pediatric palliative […]

Hazardous drinking among young adults seeking outpatient mental health services.

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use can have a significant negative impact on young adults in mental health treatment. This cross-sectional study examined prevalence and factors associated with hazardous drinking among young adults seeking outpatient mental health services, rate of alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and the relationship between hazardous drinking and other types of substance use. METHODS: Participants […]

A Systematic Review of the Respiratory Effects of Inhalational Marijuana.

This systematic review focuses on respiratory effects of inhalational marijuana. The systematic review of the literature was conducted using a comparative method between 2 researchers. Abstracts were reviewed for inclusion of respiratory effects related to inhalational marijuana. Relevant abstracts were collected, and full text articles were retrieved for review. Articles were removed if they did […]

Disentangling psychopathology, substance use and dependence: a factor analysis.

BACKGROUND: The notion that substance use can induce symptoms of depression and anxiety is influential in clinical practice, however questions remain about the empirical support for this hypothesis. METHODS: We analysed mental health and substance dependence screening records for 280 outpatients in addictions treatment. Item-level data for depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), severity of dependence (SDS) […]

Effects of Marijuana Use on Brain Structure and Function: Neuroimaging Findings from a Neurodevelopmental Perspective.

Marijuana, behind only tobacco and alcohol, is the most popular recreational drug in America with prevalence rates of use rising over the past decade. A wide range of research has highlighted neurocognitive deficits associated with marijuana use, particularly when initiated during childhood or adolescence. Neuroimaging, describing alterations to brain structure and function, has begun to […]

Cannabigerol is a novel, well-tolerated appetite stimulant in pre-satiated rats.

RATIONALE: The appetite-stimulating properties of cannabis are well documented and have been predominantly attributed to the hyperphagic activity of the psychoactive phytocannabinoid, ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC). However, we have previously shown that a cannabis extract devoid of ∆9-THC still stimulates appetite, indicating that other phytocannabinoids also elicit hyperphagia. One possible candidate is the non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid cannabigerol (CBG), […]

PD-related Medical Marijuana Studies – Cannabinoids in Parkinson’s


Below are several PD-related medical marijuana studies that have been conducted to evaluate the use of cannabinoids in Parkinson’s: The Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids for Movement Disorders: clinical observations and trials of cannabinoid-based therapies suggest a possible benefit to tics and probably no benefit for tremor in dyskinesias or PD motor symptoms. Further preclinical and […]

The role of anxiety sensitivity in the relation between anxious arousal and cannabis and alcohol use problems among low-income inner city racial/ethnic minorities.

The current study explored anxiety sensitivity as a factor accounting for the association between anxious arousal and problems related to use of cannabis and alcohol among a health disparity sample (low income minorities). Specifically, participants were 130 low-income racial/ethnic minorities who reported daily cannabis use (Mage=37.7 SD=10.0; 28.5% female). There were significant indirect associations of […]

The increase of cannabis use may indirectly affect the health status of a freshwater species.

Cannabis is the most used illicit drug worldwide and in some Countries a new regulatory policy makes it legal under some restrictions. This situation could lead to a substantial increase of the environmental levels of the cannabis active principle (Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol; Δ-9-THC) and its main metabolite, the 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH). Whilst previous studies highlighted the toxicity […]

Tobacco exposure and maternal psychopathology: Impact on toddler problem behavior.

Prenatal exposure to tobacco has consistently predicted later problem behavior for children. However, little is known about developmental mechanisms underlying this association. We examined a conceptual model for the association between prenatal tobacco exposure and child problem behavior in toddlerhood via indirect paths through fetal growth, maternal depression, and maternal aggressive disposition in early infancy […]

Pure Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin and a Cannabis sativa extract with high content in Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin inhibit nitrite production in murine peritoneal macrophages.

Historical and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. We have here investigated the effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and of a Cannabis sativa extract with high (64.8%) content in THCV (THCV-BDS) on nitric oxide (NO) production, and on cannabinoid and transient receptor potential (TRP) channel expression in lipopolysaccharide […]

Lifetime use of cannabis from longitudinal assessments, cannabinoid receptor (CNR1) variation, and reduced volume of the right anterior cingulate.

Lifetime measures of cannabis use and co-occurring exposures were obtained from a longitudinal cohort followed an average of 13 years at the time they received a structural MRI scan. MRI scans were analyzed for 88 participants (mean age=25.9 years), 34 of whom were regular users of cannabis. Whole brain voxel based morphometry analyses (SPM8) were […]

Substance use patterns and unprotected sex among street-involved youth in a Canadian setting: a prospective cohort study.

BACKGROUND: Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and unplanned pregnancy are high among youth. While the intersection between drug and alcohol use and unprotected sex is well recognized, few studies have examined the relationship between substance use patterns and unprotected sex among high risk-populations such as street-involved youth. METHODS: Data were derived from the At-Risk […]

A Preliminary Investigation of Ethnic Differences in Resistance in Multisystemic Therapy.

Therapy process research suggests that an inverted U-shaped trajectory of client resistance, referred to as the struggle-and-working-through pattern, predicts positive treatment outcomes. However, this research may lack external validity given the exclusive focus on European Americans. This preliminary study explores differences in resistance patterns in a sample of African American and European American juvenile drug […]

[Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage (BAH): cannabis and vascular involvement].

We report the case of a 39-year-old man with bilateral adrenal haemorrhage. The diagnosis is rarely primarily made with imaging alone. Our patient had a previous history of a stroke six years prior to this episode. We evoke the possibility that long-term daily cannabis use could be the underlying cause of the patient’s vascular pathologies. […]

DSM-5-defined attenuated psychosis syndrome and conversion to full-scale schizophrenia spectrum disorders: An institution-wide retrospective review.

BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to determine if DSM-5-defined attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS) could identify individuals with prodromal psychosis and predict conversion to schizophrenia spectrum disorders at a rate similar to that observed in previous studies that utilized structured interviews and specialized rating scales. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients’ medical records was […]

The Correlation of Women’s Sexual Health and Marijuana Use

Primary Outcome Measures: Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug (19.8 million past-month users) according to the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). There is a current movement towards the legalization of marijuana in various states and there are numerous claims of potential uses in medicine. The internet is rich with […]

Endocannabinoid system: Role in depression, reward and pain control (Review).

Depression and pain co-exist in almost 80% of patients and are associated with impaired health-related quality of life, often contributing to high mortality. However, the majority of patients who suffer from the comorbid depression and pain are not responsive to pharmacological treatments that address either pain or depression, making this comorbidity disorder a heavy burden […]

Parenthood, Child Care, and Heroin Use: Outcomes After Three Years.

BACKGROUND: Internationally there is a lack of measurement on the impact of childcare on people who use drugs. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article was to longitudinally measure drug use, familial and social status and criminal involvement between parents and nonparents who use heroin and have children in their care. METHODS: From 2003 to 2006, […]

Substance Use among a Sample of Healthcare Workers in Kenya: A Cross-Sectional Study.

This study describes reported substance use among Kenyan healthcare workers (HCWs), as it has implications for HCWs’ health, productivity, and their ability and likelihood to intervene on substance use. The Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) was administered to a convenience sample of HCWs (n = 206) in 15 health facilities. Reported lifetime use was […]

Prevalence of Psychoactive Substance Consumption in People With Obesity.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and the kind of psychoactive substances consumed by people with obesity. METHODS: Patients were included at their first visit for bariatric surgery. Socio-demographic characteristics, anxiety, depressive disorders and psychoactive substance consumption were assessed. The prevalence of psychoactive substance consumption was compared to that of […]

Testing the Validity of Taxonic Schizotypy Using Genetic and Environmental Risk Variables.

BACKGROUND: Meehl regarded schizotypy as a categorial liability for schizophrenia that is the product of genes, environment, and gene-environment interactions. We sought to test whether schizophrenia-related genotypes and environmental risk factors predict membership in classes defined by taxometric analyses of positive (cognitive-perceptual), negative (interpersonal), and disorganized schizotypy. METHODS: Participants (n = 500) completed the Schizotypal […]