By Dr. Malik Burnett and Amanda Reiman, PhD, MSW
Over the past few months I have been reading reports about how so many people have been getting relief from medical marijuana, from little children with epilepsy to patients with cancer, there seem to be a significant number of people getting help that wasn’t otherwise possible, but how can I tell if medical marijuana will be helpful for me?
Thanks for your question. You are not alone in having this question. Over the past few weeks we have been inundated with hundreds of questions from people all across the country looking to see if they can get relief from medical marijuana.
Medical marijuana is by no means a panacea, but because of how the body’s endocannabinoid system is designed, there are a significant number of ailments for which cannabis can prove useful.
In order to get a better handle on the breadth of diseases for which the cannabis plant has therapeutic potential it is best to group diseases in four major categories: neurological, inflammatory, digestive, and psychological.
*Note some of these diseases have a pathophysiology that make them fit in multiple groups but for simplicity we will discuss them in one section here.
The most widely recognized category of diseases for which cannabis has been shown to be therapeutically beneficial are the neurological disorders. In fact it is so widely recognized, that the U.S. government owns the only patent on the cannabis plant and it is for the use of cannabis in the treatment of neurological disorders. Research indicates that cannabis has proven to be beneficial in the treatment of ALS (Lou Gehrig’s Disease), Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson’s Disease, Huntington’s Disease, Alzheimer’s Disease, Glaucoma, and of course numerous epileptic disorders.
The overarching mechanism of action for cannabis in these diseases is based on the role that cannabinoids play in the brain as regulators of neurotransmitters, or the molecules which facilitate communication in the brain. Additionally, GW Pharmaceuticals have developed two medicines based on cannabis plant extracts, Sativex and Epidiolex, which have shown benefit in both MS and epileptic patients.
In addition to neurological benefits, cannabis has been shown to be helpful in the treatment of disease processes which are characterized by disorders of the immune system. Some of these diseases include, rheumatoid arthritis and HIV/AIDS. For simplicity we will also include cancer in this category given that the mechanism of action for cannabinoids within cancer treatment is similar to those of other inflammatory processes, by again having cannabinoids modulate intercellular communication processes.
It is a well-established fact that cannabis has been helpful in helping alleviate symptoms of nausea which are associated with a range of illnesses as well as helping to stimulate appetite, a phenomenon which can prove beneficial to both the infirmed and healthy individual. Beyond being helpful in symptom management, cannabis has also been shown to be helpful in other gastrointestinal disorders such as Chron’s Disease and Irritable Bowel Syndrome. The mechanism of action for this is currently not well understood but patients who use cannabis for these conditions report greater ability to sleep, reduced abdominal cramping, and improved ability to digest foods.
The use of cannabis in the treatment of psychological conditions remains highly controversial and narrow in scope. As we have discussed in a previous blog post, many people still erroneously hold the belief that cannabis use causes schizophrenia. In spite of this falsehood, cannabis has been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of bipolar disorder, PTSD, and Tourette’s syndrome. Ultimately, significantly more research is needed to understand the role which cannabis can play in psychotherapy, but preliminary results are promising.
Overall, it is vital that you consult your physician and have an open and honest dialogue regarding the use of cannabis in your medical care. Cannabis is not a first line therapy for any disease, and often times is used in conjunction with traditional medical therapies, given its ability to mitigate the side effects of many medications. What is clear is that we need more research and physician involvement in the arena of medical marijuana. One great resource for more information on the research behind medical cannabis can be found here. Additionally, our friends at Americans for Safe Access are promoting the dialogue by discussing these issue in our Nation’s Capital next month. Just recently, the United States Senate introduced legislation which will protect medical marijuana states and drastically expand the ability of scientist to conduct research on this venerable plant. With legislation like this, we can open up the opportunities for research and capitalize on the full therapeutic applications for the cannabis plant.
Dr. Malik Burnett is a former surgeon and physician advocate. He also served as executive director of a medical marijuana nonprofit organization. Amanda Reiman, PhD, holds a doctorate in Social Welfare and teaches classes on drug policy at the University of California-Berkeley.
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Author: Dr. Malik Burnett and Amanda Reiman, PhD, MSW
Date Published: March 12, 2015
Published by Drug Policy Alliance
Via:: Ddrug Policy Alliance